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Electrical Wire and Cable
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Electrical Wire and Cable

Electric Wire and Electrical Cable

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Summary: Complete listing of electrical wire types and parts used for home projects with electrical code information serves as selection guidelines.

How to Choose the Right Type of Electrical Wire for Home Wiring Projects




Home Electrical Wire and Type NM Cable

The NEC Code requires home electrical wire to be protected and enclosed when devices such as receptacles, fixtures and switches are being installed.

Sometimes it is necessary to junction or splice wires.

When splicing wires, an accessible junction box is necessary to enclose the spliced wires.

This list shows various home-electrical-wire and displays the wire name and the typical application.

The most common type of home electrical wire that is installed for general purpose electrical circuits is Type NM or Non-Metallic sheathed cable made up of at least one pair of insulated wire conductors and one bare wire used for the ground conductor. The ground conductor is bonded throughout the home to maintain a contiguous grounded system which originates back at the Main Service Panel.

The installation of the Type NM home electrical wire is accomplished by drilling holes using approved methods which protects the wire and maintains structural integrity for the home. Methods are available to protect wiring which becomes vulnerable to damage which could occur during the installation of sheet rock or other wall coverings. This protection is provided by Safety Plates, as shown in the table below.

Wire Ampacity
The insulated wiring conductors inside Type NM Cable are rated for temperature.

This rating limits the current flow in amperage thereby preventing the home-electrical-wire from overheating and causing a fire.

Using the properly sized wire will ensure safe circuit performance.

Unless otherwise specifically permitted in the electrical code, the overcurrent protection for conductor types should not exceed the following:

Copper Conductors:
15 amps for #14 AWG, 20 amps for #12 AWG and 30 amps for #10 AWG

Aluminum and Copper Clad Conductors:

15 amps for #12 AWG and 25 amps for #10 AWG

These specifications are determined after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied. Specific conductor insulation types are determined based on installation environmental factors such as free-air, dry or damp locations.

Although the preceding table is true and accurate, many times the wire type is not known. There are also instances where more than one type of wire is used on a circuit. This is why it is best to use this default chart to determine the capacity of the wire sizes listed below

Calculations for Wire Load Capacity are determined by using an 80% Load Factor.
For example:
The actual load capacity for a 20 amp #12 copper conductor would be 16 amps.
Determined by using this formula:
Amperage X .80 = Load Capacity or ( 20 X .80 = 16 )

This table shows the Amperage Rating for Home Electrical Wire Sizes
Although this is the most common table used to determine wire size, this is just one example.
Allowable Ampacity of Insulated Wire Conductors
Based on NEC Table 310-16
  60 Deg C
(140 Deg F)
75 Deg C
(167 Deg F)
90 Deg C
(194 Deg F)
60 Deg C
(140 Deg F)
75 Deg C
(167 Deg F)

90 Deg C
(194 Deg F)
Wire
Types
TW,
UF
RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW THHN,
THWN-2,
XHHW

TW,UF RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, XHHW THHN, THWN-2, XHHW

Wire Size
AWG

Copper Wire
Amperage Ratings

Aluminum Wire
Amperage Ratings

#14 20 20 25 - - -
#12 25 25 30 20 20 25
#10 30 35 40 25 30 35
#8 40 50 55 30 40 45
#6 55 65 75 40 50 60
#4 70 85 95 55 65 75
#3 85 100 110 65 75 85
#2 95 115 130 75 90 100
#1 110 130 150 85 100 115



Type-NM Cable Used for House Wiring
Copper Wire Conductors

WIRE SIZE
AWG

AMPERAGE
RATING

#14 AWG

15 Amps

#12 AWG

20 Amps

#10 AWG

30 Amps

#8 AWG

40 Amps



Common Electrical Wire for Home Circuit Wiring

Type NM Cable Trade Name & Amps Electrical Circuit
electrical wire - 14-2 romex-wire electrical wire - 14-2 Wire for Outlets and Lighting
electrical wire - 14-3-romex-wire electrical wire - 14-3 Romex wire Wire for Lighting - 3-Way Switches
and Smoke Detectors
electrical wire - 12-2-romex-wire electrical wire - 12-2 Romex wire Wire for Outlet Receptacles
electrical wire - 12-3-romex-wire electrical wire - 12-3 Romex wire 3-Wire Circuits - Kitchen / Garage Wire
electrical wire - 10-2-romex-wire electrical wire - 10-2 Romex wire Wire for Water Heaters - Small A/C
electrical wire - 10-3-romex-wire electrical wire - 10-3 Romex wire Wire for Dryer with 4-Wire Receptacle
electrical wire - 8-3-romex-wire electrical wire - 8-3 Romex wire Wire for Small Ovens


Common Wiring Fasteners and Components and What They are Used For
WIRE PROTECTION PART DESCRIPTION WIRING PURPOSE and USE
electrical romex-staple Cable Staple
Fasten cables to wood structure every 4-1/2' and within 8 " of boxes.
7/16 - #14 Type NM Cable
9/16 - #12 & #10 Type NM Cable
1 - Inch for Larger Cables
electrical wire-safety-plate Safety Plate Protect the wires in vulnerable areas
How to Home Wiring Projects


Common Wire Connectors and What They are Used For
WIRENUTS and WIRE CONNECTORS WIRE CONNECTOR CONNECTOR CAPACITY
electrical wirenut-blue-large Large Blue Wirenut #14 thru #6 AWG
Min. 3 #12
Max. 2 #6 w/ 1 #12
electrical wirenut-gray-large Large Gray Wirenut #18 to #6 AWG
Min. 2 #12
Max. 6 #12
electrical wirenut-red Red Wirenut #18 thru #8 AWG
Min. 2 #18
Max. 4 #10
electrical wirenut-yellow Yellow Wirenut #18 thru #10 AWG
Min. 2 #18
Max. 3 #12
electrical wirenut-orange Orange Wirenut #22 to #14 AWG
Min. 1 #18 w/ 1 #20
Max. 4 #16 w/ 1 #20

Common Earth Grounding Components and What They are Used For
GROUND BONDING PART PART DESCRIPTION GROUND PURPOSE and USE
electrical wire-crimp Crimp Sleeve Joining two or three #14 or #12 bare ground wires to form a "tail" for bonding plugs & switches
electrical green-ground-screw Green Grounding Screw Bond the ground wire using tapped ground access
#14 and #12 wires
electrical ground-clip Grounding Clip For older metal boxes without a ground screw access
#14 and #12 wire
electrical grounding-lug Ground Lug Bonding larger wires
various sizes for wires

Remember to always check the device specifications for the Required Amperage and Circuit Breaker size, then select your home electrical wire size.


More about Electrical Wire




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Home Electrical Wiring - Upgrade Electrical Wiring
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Electrical Troubleshooting and Repairs
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Electrical Tips to Help You Wire it Right

The Safest Way to Test Electrical Devices and Identify Electric Wires!

The Non-Contact Electrical Tester
This is a testing tool that I have had in my personal electrical tool pouch for years, and is the first test tool I grab to help identify electrical wiring. It is a Non-contact tester that I use to easily Detect Voltage in Cables, Cords, Circuit Breakers, Lighting Fixtures, Switches, Outlets and Wires. Simply insert the end of the tester into an outlet, lamp socket, or hold the end of the tester against the wire you wish to test. Very handy and easy to use.

The Quickest Way to Check for Faulty Electrical Wiring!

The Plug-In Outlet Tester
This is the first tool I grab to troubleshoot a problem with outlet circuit wiring. This popular tester is also used by most inspectors to test for power and check the polarity of circuit wiring.
It detects probable improper wiring conditions in standard 110-125 VAC outlets Provides 6 probable wiring conditions that are quick and easy to read for ultimate efficiency Lights indicate if wiring is correct and indicator light chart is included Tests standard 3-wire outlets UL Listed Light indicates if wiring is incorrect Very handy and easy to use.

Strip Off Wire Insulation without Nicking and Damaging the Electric Wire!

The Wire Stripper and Wire Cutter
My absolute favorite wire stripping tool that I have had in my personal electrical tool pouch for years, and this is the tool I use to safely strip electrical wires.
This handy tool has multiple uses:
The wire gauges are shown on the side of the tool so you know which slot to use for stripping insulation.
The end of the tool can be used to grip and bend wire which is handy for attaching wire onto the screw terminals of switches and outlets..

The wire stripper will work on both solid and stranded wire. This tool is Very Handy and Easy to Use.


Electrical Wiring Questions and Answers