An Overview of Hot Tub Electrical Circuit Wiring and Requirements
By Dave Rongey - Summary:
Electrical Circuit Wiring for a Hot Tub Circuit: The electrical circuit is a dedicated GFCI protected circuit. Many hot tubs required a 4-wire circuit which has a separate neutral and separate ground along with the 2-conductors which provide the 240 volt circuit.
Electrical Wiring for a Hot Tub Circuit
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The hot tub requires 2 – 240v circuits, both 30 amps. It is currently wired with the following:
Main Electrical Panel:
1 – 30 Amp 240V GFCI
1 – 20 Amp 120V GFCI (incorrect, need a 240v)
Sub-Panel near the Hot Tub, outside:
Hard wired with a “big handle” type switch on the side, no additional GFCI, controls ONLY the 240V line.
- They originally hijacked the 240v supply for the Range, and added a GFCI breaker, but they did NOT connect the White load-wire to the GFCI and left it connected to the neutral\ground bar in the box (which I fixed).
- They did the same thing for the 120v GFCI breaker, so I moved the white wire to the breaker for that one as well.
- The white pigtails were connected to the ground strip on both GFCI breakers. (I hope all that makes sense!)
My questions about this Hot Tub Circuit Wiring are:
- Is it OK that the GFCI breakers are in the main box?
- Is it OK that there are no breakers in the Sub-Panel and just a large lever-type switch?
- Am I correct that all load-wires should be connected to the GFCI breaker (red, black, white), except for the ground wire?
- Is there any way to test the GFCI breaker other than hitting the “TEST” button (ie, short out the line at the Hot Tub)
- They used Aluminum Wire (heavy gauge). Is that ever OK? If so, what gauge?
Thanks for your help!
This electrical wiring question came from: Kevin, a Homeowner from Marlborough, MA
Thanks for your electrical wiring question Kevin.
Electrical Circuit Wiring for a Hot Tub Circuit
- A typical hot tub requires a 50 amp, 240 volt 4-wire circuit, but this could vary depending on the exact hot tub that is installed so the installation manual should be consulted.
- The electrical circuit is a dedicated GFCI protected circuit. Many hot tubs required a 4-wire circuit which has a separate neutral and separate ground along with the 2-conductors which provide the 240 volt circuit.
- Most hot tubs will specify that the electrical circuit wiring must be copper, not aluminum, I have replaced aluminum hot tub circuit wiring where copper was specifically required.
- A disconnect switch must be in the location of the hot tub. The switch does not have to have the GFCI circuit breaker, it can be a handle type disconnect.
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